تصنف الفيروسات حسب. Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification

CC licensed content, Specific attribution• Some of the transmissible amyloidoses show a familial pattern and can be explained by defined mutations which render a primary soluble glycoprotein insoluble, which in turn leads to the pathognomonic accumulation of amyloid fibers and plaques The virions of these viruses pack into cubic paracrystalline arrays in the nucleus of infected cells Boulanger et al
The relationship of the genome to mRNA is indicated either by solid line transcription or dotted line no transcription In contrast, sequence analysis of VSV genomes subjected to plaque-to-plaque passages did not show unusual mutations, with the possible exception of mutations in the RNA termini, which are uncommon in viruses evolving in regimes of acute replication Novella and Ebendick-Corpus, 2004

Baltimore Classification The most commonly-used system of virus classification was developed by Nobel Prize-winning biologist David Baltimore in the early 1970s.

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Fitness has often been considered a component of parasite virulence, defined as the capacity of parasites to inflict damage upon their hosts
Virus classification
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Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
Notable DNA viruses include variola virus the cause of human smallpox , hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human papillomaviruses, varicella zoster virus the cause of chickenpox and shingles , herpes simplex viruses, and simian virus 40
OpenStax College, Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification Also considered in viral classification is the site of capsid assembly and, in enveloped viruses, the site of envelopment
Single-stranded RNA viruses using reverse transcriptase are contained in only one family: Pseudoviridae Adenovirus infection also causes the redistribution of nucleolin and B23 Matthews, 2001

Office International des Epizooties OIE , Paris Chapter 2.

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Structure and Classification of Viruses
See also: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Viruses infecting invertebrates Double-stranded DNA viruses that infect invertebrates especially arthropods comprise five families: Poxviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, and Ascoviridae
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The agents causing transmissible subacute spongiform encephalopathies have been linked to viroids or virinos i
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For this reason, mutations in RNA viruses occur more frequently than in DNA viruses
OpenStax College, Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification coli C990 cell infected with the phage phiX174
Animal viruses can be classified by the nature of the nucleic genome ie, DNA or RNA Panel A : Reproduced with permission from Henry C

virus: a submicroscopic infectious organism, now understood to be a non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat• Interestingly, B23 has been shown to stimulate adenovirus replication.

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Animal Viruses
B Paracrystalline array of IBDV virions enclosed in a membrane envelope
Structure and Classification of Viruses
Virus capsids can be classified as naked icosahedral, enveloped icosahedral, enveloped helical, naked helical, and complex
Structure and Classification of Viruses
8 Identification of Aquatic Animal Viruses of Veterinary Importance Aquatic animal viruses are isolated and identified according to standard virological procedures Essbauer and Ahne, 2001 , but culture-dependent characterization is not always possible